Five Musts For Fertility

Feeding and management at transition, high quality sires, knowledgable staff and the commitment to carry out protocols to the letter while adapting when necessary are the five key ingredients herd reproduction.
calendar icon 11 March 2014
clock icon 5 minute read

This is according to the Dairy Cattle Reproduction Council's (DCRC) five essential components for a successful breeding programme. 

DCRC experts write: while you have no easy way to determine what must be cut first, putting reproduction on a back burner often is easy because results won’t be realized for a few months.

But with milk prices cycling back, unbred animals in late lactation and fewer replacement heifers can cause real problems. That makes reproduction absolutely critical.

Below is a list of five areas you just can’t forget, regardless of economic conditions. Absolute Compliance Keeping protocols in place is especially important to ensure the right cows are bred at the right time.

Maintaining a highly efficient reproductive program can help keep your herd running optimally through all economic environments.
Photo Courtesy of John Schroeder


Reduced reproductive performance rarely is due to physiologic responses of individual cows but almost always can be attributed to compliance issues on the farm.

To achieve success with these hormone protocols, each farm has to develop a system to administer the correct injections to the correct cows on the correct days and then subsequently breed the correct cows at the right time.

A standard PreSynch/Ovsynch protocol requires that each individual cow receives five hormone doses at the appropriate intervals. Failure to administer any one of these five injections dramatically or completely reduces the conception rate at first-timed artificial insemination (AI) and ultimately will result in a delay in establishing pregnancy.

Because of its importance, nothing less than 100 per cent compliance should be considered acceptable. Dairies should have standard operating procedures in place that outline a process to achieve 100 per cent compliance.

Dairies not able to manage these protocols to achieve near 100 per cent compliance should consider focusing on other methods to boost herd reproduction, including heat detection and heat detection aids.

Transition Management

Continue to focus on the transition period because it will have a direct impact on future lactation performance.

If cows are not managed or fed properly during the transition, multiple reproductive problems can result. Here are a few ways to help keep the transition smooth:

• Maintain dry-matter intake (DMI)

The drop in DMI commonly associated with the prefresh period can lead to major problems once cows join the milking string, including myriad metabolic disorders. Ensuring that cows continue to eat prior to calving is essential to reducing the incidence of such disorders and preparing for the upcoming lactation.

• Minimize overcrowding and stress

Adequate bunk space and number of stalls are critical during transition to maximize DMI and reduce cow stress. When possible, reduce pen moves during the transition to avoid adding stress and reducing DMI.

• Group cows to fit herd needs

Grouping first-lactation and older cows separately can help both groups transition properly. Heifers, for example, eat less but need more energy to meet their growth and maintenance needs, which is tough to accomplish when they are fighting more mature animals for bunk and stall space.

High-quality AI sires

The use of AI has cumulative benefits, including the opportunity to choose sires that are proven to transmit superior genetics. Research shows that cows sired by proven AI sires produced 3,080 pounds more herd lifetime milk and were $148 more profitable when compared with daughters of non-AI sires. 

While using a herd bull may seem like a cheaper alternative to purchasing semen, the indirect and direct costs of a natural service program can be more costly than an AI program. Using timed AI also allows you to submit cows back into a protocol immediately when they called open to allow for more rapid rebreeding and pregnancy.

Continuing to use AI sires that meet your herd’s objectives will produce heifers with the best genetic potential. These heifers will be the future of your operation, which makes your breeding decisions absolutely critical.

Trained Employees

The training and experience of your workforce ultimately will impact how well your cows perform at breeding because they are the ones implementing the AI protocols, watching for heats, catching and breeding cows, or reporting uterine health problems.

"The indirect and direct costs of a natural service program can be more costly than an AI program"

Depending on your situation, you may have considered having fewer people do the same work to cut costs. Before making such a decision, make sure the remaining employees have the necessary knowledge and skills to take on these new roles, as well as the time to include these activities in their daily tasks. Remember that if you ask one person to do the work of two, many tasks are not completed as thoroughly.

Knowledgeable Veterinary Services

Continue to work with a herd veterinarian who has experience in reproduction and is working on your team to optimize herd reproduction goals. While the veterinarian’s services can be costly, his or her visits are absolutely necessary to keep your reproductive program on track. Veterinarians are especially important for the following:

• Pregnancy status

Accurate pregnancy checking is critical to get open cows rebred in a timely fashion. Your veterinarian is properly trained in pregnancy diagnosis and can call cows open or pregnant accurately.

• Uterine health disorders

Routine checks allow for uterine health disorders to be identified and treated early, which means animals will be ready for breeding in a timely manner. Your veterinarian also can make recommendations to help reduce the incidence of disease.

Changes in Protocols

When you’re looking for ways to improve your reproductive program, work with your veterinarian to identify changes to the protocols for improved reproductive efficiency. Your veterinarian has the knowledge of how protocols can be adjusted to best fit the cow’s natural reproductive physiology. As you make economic decisions about the management of your dairy, avoid the initial knee-jerk reaction to pull back your herd reproduction program.

While it may seem to be on the back burner today, having a crop of genetically superior heifers and maintaining a highly efficient reproductive program can help keep your herd running optimally through all economic environments.

March 2014

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