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Weather Impacts Somatic Cell Count

09 July 2013

Although the trend across the state is of improvement, somatic cell counts in South Dakota can increase when the weather turns wet, writes Alvaro Garcia, Dairy Specialist at South Dakota State University.

Alvaro Garcia
Professor & SDSU Extension Dairy Field Specialist

Somatic cell counts have seen constant improvements in the state. In the last five years dairy herds on DHIA in South Dakota have improved somatic cell counts by nearly 21 per cent from 282,000 to 255,000. During the last year alone this improvement was 13 per cent from 255,000 to 222,000. Current wet weather conditions experienced in eastern South Dakota increase the risk of mastitis and the resultant increase in somatic cells.

Some herds have already experienced moderate spikes in somatic cell counts in their milk during the month of May, an indication that an inflammation process is occurring in the udder.

If producers need to address a sudden increase in somatic cells during wet weather they should consider two main areas:

1. Make Sure an Adequate Milking Protocol is Followed.

Place particular emphasis on stripping (at least three squirts) to eliminate the most contaminated milk first, which is the one present in the teat cistern. Make sure that teat dip coverage is thorough and that it remains in contact with the skin for at least 20 seconds. Using clean, dry towels to wipe the teats clean is critical.

"Make sure that teat dip coverage is thorough and that it remains in contact with the skin for at least 20 seconds."
Alvaro Garcia - Dairy Specialist


Make sure cloth towels are washed properly with detergent and bleach and the temperature setting in the machine is in hot (not just warm!). Do not overload the washing machine as this will not allow for a good washing cycle. Make sure the drier is not overload also to allow towels to dry completely. Ask employees to maintain the towel bins closed while not being in use to prevent manure to splash on the clean towels. Cutting a relatively small round hole on the lid through which the towels can be retrieved will reduce the chances of them getting soiled while in the parlor.

2. Cow Comfort/Cleanliness.

Make sure bedding is replaced as often as possible, that it is clean and dry. Deep bedding replaced less often is worse than more-shallow bedding that producers replace daily. Those producers that use recycled manure solids or bedded packs as bedding must take extra precautions during wet weather by removing solid bedding often.

These two types of bedding are high in organic matter and an increase in moisture will promote bacteria proliferation. In addition, manure-soiled water from alleys is more likely to splash on udders in barns that are not cleaned regularly. It happens more often when cows are moved rapidly from the parlor.

In general milking protocols have been more consistent and milk quality has improved when the same person takes care of stripping, pre-dipping, drying the teats and attaching the unit. Any producer who feels the need to revisit the milking procedure of his employees can contact Dairy Extension for help.

It is easier to correct any milking procedural drifts early than to wait after somatic cells increase too much. Any producer interested in establishing a clinic for their dairy may contact their local Extension office or call the SDSU dairy science department at (605) 688-4166.

June 2013

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